The Advantages Of Warm Forging
Shaping metal by compressive forces is known as forging. Although there are different types of forging, they all offer a part with increased strength and durability. Its ability to save both time and material are just a few reason to consider forging as an alternative to other methods of manufacture.
The mechanical advantages of forging at higher temperatures include increasing the materials ductility and decreasing the metals yield strength. The ductility increase is due to the deformation taking place above the re-crystallization temperature. This increase in ductility results in an ability to form a more complex shape without the strain-hardening effects, resulting in fewer operations required to form the desired shape. In addition, the materials lower yield strength results in less force and therefore less energy required to forge the metal.
Although increase in forging temperature offers many benefits there are a few disadvantages to higher heat. One such disadvantage is surface finish. Although mostly due to the oxidation know as scale that occurs as the parts cool, there is also an increase in the erosion of the dies at high temperatures. This not only results in higher tooling costs, but also less precision due to the die wear and the shrinkage that occurs as the part cools.
Warm forging offers a happy median between cold forging and hot forging. Less energy is required for heating than hot forging, but less forging pressure is needed than cold forging. Less shrinkage and oxidation occurs resulting in greater precision than hot forging, and tooling costs are lower than cold forging. Overall, warm forging can provide a lower cost alternative with better quality for many of its applications.